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Female mosquitoes of nearly all species require blood from vertebrate animals to develop eggs, and many species bite people, pets, and livestock for this purpose. The most important consequence of this is the transmission of microorganisms that cause diseases such as western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis. Both of these diseases can cause serious, sometimes fatal neurological ailments in people. (Western equine encephalomyelitis virus also causes disease in horses.) Western equine encephalomyelitis infections tend to be more serious in infants while St. Louis encephalitis can be a problem for older people. Some mosquitoes are capable of transmitting malaria to humans. If these mosquitoes suck the blood of a person that has malarial parasites, they may pass on the infection to the next person(s) they bite; however, malaria is currently rare in Cyprus.

Even when no infectious diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes, they can be a health problem to people and livestock. Mosquito bites can result in secondary infections, allergic reactions, pain, irritation, redness, and itching.